Chocolate: the good, the bad and the portion. 

Chocolate originates from cocoa beans from the Theobroma cocoa tree. The beans are fermented, ground and separated to cocoa butter and powder. 

Cocoa has been used for many used as a medical aid. It is rich in flavonoids which have potent antioxidant functions. These include being :

  1. Anti-inflammatory 
  2. Helping blood vessels to dilate so helping reduce blood pressure. 
  3. Increasing insulin sensitivity 
  4. Decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis. 
  5. Positive affect on cholesterol: increase HDL (the good guys) and decrease LDL oxidation. 
  6. A reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. 

However we don’t eat cocoa on its own. Milk chocolate has a variety of other ingredients added in. It is high in energy, free sugars and saturated fat. One point to note here is that not all chocolate is equal. The darker the chocolate (higher % cocoa) the higher the flavanol content and the less sugar. White chocolate is not actually chocolate as it doesn’t contain any cocoa powder or cocoa solids but cocoa butter mixed with milk and sugar. The chocolate in eggs can be of a lower quality with lower flavanols and mineral content so watch out! Check the cocoa solids. 

An easy way to remember a portion of chocolate is “the size of your index finger”. That is about 2 squares for a child and 4 squares for an adult. 

© Magdalena Żurawska | Dreamstime Stock Photos

So chocolate is something that can definitely be enjoyed as part of a balanced diet. The key is thinking about the quality of the chocolate you are having and the portion size. Space that chocolate out and enjoy it, rather than gorging on it all in one go.  Savour it and eat it mindfully, 

 

Eating Mediterranean to beat the bills

One thing I love about nutrition and dietetics is the conundrum that is complex science that usually translates down to simple health messages. The Mediterranean diet is a great example. The science behind how it all works on the body is long winded actions of  polyphenols and antioxidants. However you don’t really need to worry about all of that. What we really want to know is:

  1. What does the summary of the research say about the health benefits.
  2. How can I translate that into my everyday life.
  3. What do I need to eat and how often. 

A team from Ghent University analysed the research on the Med diet, looking at 8 meta analysis and 10 cohort studies, they founds some pretty huge results.  If we convinced 2% of the UK to eat a more Mediterranean diet it could lead to a saving of £1 billion. Increase this to 10% of the population eating more plant foods, olive oil, soya, nuts and seed would potentially save £5 billion.  Reductions through a decrease in hospital admissions, doctors bills and keeping people healthy to work more days a year. Isn’t it amazing that such simple changes can lead to such huge savings.

A summary of the research showed that a Med diet can:

  • Reduce diabetes risk by 26% 
  • Lead to a 42% reduction in CHD in men and 25% in women
  • 37% reduction in stroke
  • 33% reduction in breast cancer
Med diet reduces disease risk Women Men
Colon cancer

40%

44%

Stomach cancer

42%

29%

Lung cancer

25%

23%

Diabetes

28%

28%

Stroke

36%

9%

Prostrate cancer  

30%

Postmenopausal breast cancer

36%

 
coronary heart disease

4%

4%

Soya beans, soy products and tofu contain phyto-oestrogens. These are bioactive substances in plant foods that have naturally occurring oestrogen activity. Photo oestrogens have been widely studied and there is evidence they can help with menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats. Some bone sparing effects in osteoporosis and they may reduce the risk of certain cancers. They can reduce the risk of heart disease due to their cholesterol lowering effects. Eating more soy can displace the saturated fat intake from meat. 

 

 So the plan from this for you? 

Eat more fruit and vegetables – aim for over 5 portions a day if you can and include soy products in your eating (25g a day = 1 portion).

Eating to help in Chronic Fatigue

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) is one of those areas that I didn’t ever set out to work in. It just came along and found me. An Occupational Therapist who I had worked with previously approached me and asked if I would be interested in joining their team. With every bit of work I take on I have to ask myself – is my heart in this. If the answer if No then I don’t accept it. Now my heart was very much in this, as years previously, as a teenager, my mum suffered from CFS. She went from being a very bubbly, energetic, full of life person, to someone who had to rest 95% of the time. Thankfully, she recovered and now lives life almost to the same capacity as before, perhaps with a bit more caution! So, working with this client group holds a special interest for me.

I work with South Coast Fatigue and Associates, a team who are full of care, in fact the most caring bunch I’ve worked with. Plus we have the most amazing Christmas meal ever! I don’t get to hang out in the office often but I feel very privilieged to be part of the team and to be trusted to give advice to the clients. This is a very vulnerable area, some people are literally bed-bound, others are able to do small day to day activities but there is a lot of loss, resting and frustration around. Everyone wants a magic fix and the internet abounds with diets that will cure, magic supplements and herbal remedies. This is where I come in.

I work on a 1-2-1 basis with people giving advice on IBS, healthy eating, weight loss, weight gain, special diets – whatever is needed. I also run a monthly nutrition group, which is usually a very interesting couple of hours due to all the questions people bring. So here are my top 5 tips on eating well for energy.

1. Eat regularly. Skipping meals is not a good idea. The body needs a energy to heal and to function. I completely understand that the nature of CFS means that sometimes people are too tired to prepare a meal, so this is where the planning comes in. Having instantly accessible healthy snacks that can be grabbed.

2. Focus on the balance and the portion control. I encourage people to fill their plates with 1/2 vegetables and then 1/4 lean protein and 1/4 wholegrains or starchy foods. If you are less active than before, then portions will need to reduce. This can be a tricky to work out, so I do sometimes recommend a portion plate.

3. Plan, plan and plan. Build up a folder of meals, recipes and snacks. Some that are fast to make (beans on toast, ready meals, tinned soup and a roll, hummus and pitta, peanut butter and rice cakes), some that take more preparation (jacket potatoes, fish cooked in a parcel, stir fry, pasta dishes) and some you can get help to bulk cook (slow cooker meals, bolognaise, fish pie). Then do an online shop and stock up the cupboards with easy meals.

4. Use the freezer. Frozen veggies and fruit are very nutritious and quick to use. They save peeling and chopping, which saves you energy and time. There is now so much variety in frozen vegetables, it isn’t all peas and sweetcorn. Bulk cooking meals and freezing them is also so useful so there is a stash of good food for days you need it.

5. Step away from the sugar. Although you may feel like you need a sugary boost to keep your energy levels high, that can lead to a sugar peak and crash effect. Instead fuel your body with low glycaemic index foods that will provide sustained energy over the day. Foods like oats, wholegrain bread, bulghar wheat, yoghurt, hummus, apples and nuts.
See this link here for a fact sheet and here for a table of the Glyacemic Index of Foods.

Vitamin D for under 4’s

I’m writing this post after a few people have asked me if they should be giving vitamin D to their children. The answer is Yes. In 2016 the guidance on vitamins D changed and now the recommendations are that everyone in the UK takes 10 mcg a day. Especially in the autumn and winter months.

Usually as a dietitian I would encourage people to get their nutrition from food first, but with Vitamin D it is hard to meet the bodies’ requirements through food and UVB rays alone.

The original Dietary reference values for vitamin D were set back in 1991 by COMA. It was thought then that people aged 4-64yrs would synthesise enough vitamin D in the summer months to cover their winter needs. A review by SACN in 2016, found this not to be the case. If you live in the UK it will come as no surprise to know there are not that may days in the year that we have enough sun at the right position for this is happen. During autumn and winter we definitely do not have the sunlight we need to make vitamin D. Those with darker skin tones may also not get from sun exposure in the summer so taking a supplement all year round is a good idea.

Bones, Bones, Bones.
Low vitamin D is linked to increasing the risk of rickets in children. In adults, vitamin D is shown to reduce fracture risk and falls in those aged over 50yrs living in the community. There is also a beneficial effect of vitamin D on muscle strength and function.

Vitamin D advice for children under 4yrs:

Children aged 1-4 years should take 10 mcg per day, all year round.
Babies should take 8.5-10 mcg per day as a precaution unless they are having more than 500ml of formula milk a day, as this is fortified.
Data for children under 4 yrs is limited so it is hard to know how much vitamin D should be recommended, SACN have been cautious and set a safe intake of 10 mcg.

You can buy Vitamin D supplements in liquid form from supermarkets, Boots, Superdrug and pharmacies. Good examples are Abidec and NHS Healthy Start vitamin drops.

 



Disclaimer: I was sent some Vitamin D supplements courtesy of SuperDrug, which has not affected my views in the post above.

Courgette and mushroom patties

I’m always after ways to get more veggies into the children and myself. Hubby likes to do his own thing at lunch, so I made these as a preparation for the toddler, baby and my lunches. They were fast to make and went well warmed up with a salad for lunch. Make a batch, freeze a batch and feel smug all week.

Courgette Patties 2

Courgette and Mushroom Patties
Yields 12
Write a review
Print
Prep Time
10 min
Cook Time
15 min
Prep Time
10 min
Cook Time
15 min
43 calories
6 g
17 g
1 g
2 g
0 g
53 g
34 g
1 g
0 g
0 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
53g
Yields
12
Amount Per Serving
Calories 43
Calories from Fat 9
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 1g
2%
Saturated Fat 0g
2%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 0g
Cholesterol 17mg
6%
Sodium 34mg
1%
Total Carbohydrates 6g
2%
Dietary Fiber 1g
3%
Sugars 1g
Protein 2g
Vitamin A
3%
Vitamin C
11%
Calcium
3%
Iron
2%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. Spray olive oil x 5 squirts
  2. 2 courgettes, grated
  3. 5 mushrooms, grated
  4. 1 garlic clove, crushed
  5. 1 beaten egg
  6. 2 tbsp parmesan
  7. 1/2 ball mozzerella
  8. 75g cornmeal
  9. 1 tbsp fresh parsley, chopped
Instructions
  1. Preheat the oven to Gas Mark 6.
  2. Saute the courgettes and mushrooms in a pan for 5 minutes.
  3. Add the garlic and cook for a couple of minutes.
  4. Leave to cool a little and then mix in the other ingredients. It will make a thick batter.
  5. Drop large spoonfuls onto a greased and lined baking tray. It will make about 12.
  6. Bake for 15 minutes.
beta
calories
43
fat
1g
protein
2g
carbs
6g
more
Dietitian UK http://www.dietitianuk.co.uk/

Courgette patties 1 

Restriction and Eating Disorders.

Having an eating disorder can make you feel invincible, it can sometimes be hard to see how being underweight and restricting your food intake can cause physical health issues, but there are so many knock on effects of being a low weight. When your body is not getting the nutrition that it needs it can lead to knock on consequences for your bone health as the minerals are take from yoour bones for use elsewhere in the body. Another big one is  muscle wasting throughout the body including your heart. Your brain will start to conserve energy and shut down some less vital functions, brain power, memory, reactions and concentrations can be impaired. The blood may not be pumped as well around the body leading to cold extremities. Mood swings and poor sleep are common. Skin, hair and nails will start to suffer. I’ve had some people who have lost their hair in large clumps.  Less of a physical symptom, as your body craves nutrition your mind becomes increasingly pre-occupied with food, recipes, the next meal, it can become all consuming. 

Dietitian UK: Restriction and eating disorders infographicIf you or someone you know is struggling with restricting their eating, it can be helpful to think through the physical affects on the body and use these as a motivation to focus on slowly eating more. If you need help with this, seek out an eating disorders therapist, dietitian or see your GP for signposting. 

I work with people with Skype, so get in touch if you need support.

Polly’s Eating Disorder Recovery Story

When I heard Polly’s eating disorder recover story I knew I had to share it. Working in the field of eating disorders can be frankly hard work. It is a long road to recovery and a battle. It takes dedication, support from others and challenging yourself at every meal time. However it is possibly and it is worth it. I hope sharing this inspires others. 

“It took 10 years for me to finally ‘come out’ and be open about my Eating Disorder. But now I’ve come to realise that in being open I can help others, never will I keep quiet again. I hope that by sharing my story I can help you, or someone you know who is struggling, and show you that recovery is possible.

Why was I silent for so long? I didn’t think anyone would think negatively of me. At age 33 all my peers are open and mature enough not to judge in such belittling ways. Perhaps it was that people wouldn’t take me seriously as a health professional – I’m a Personal Trainer & Nutritionist who helps Mums get in shape. Ironic? Not really. Because needing to lose weight or gain weight often come from the same root psychological cause. I think a lot of it was that I just wanted to forget that horrible time in my life, sweep it under the carpet. But in doing that I’m not able to help and inspire others. The can of worms had to be opened. 

They say that to develop an eating disorder you need to have the right genetics (science shows there’s a link), the right personality (typically perfectionistic and with high personal standards – me to a T), and an immediate trigger or stress at the time of developing the disorder.

I first felt fat age 8. My Dad got remarried and family life was changing. Not in a bad way, but a lot for a young child to process. I first made myself sick age 12 at boarding school. I was bullied, not for being ‘not skinny’ (I wasn’t fat), yet somehow I figured being thin was the answer. But the problem never really took off until, at age 17 at dance school (i.e. where we spent all day in a leotard being judged on how good we’d look on TV), and my then boyfriend was sent to prison. I was also living alone in London and had struggled to fit in at the college. On a subconscious level, all would be well if I lost 3 kilos. Then I would be happy. Reading this back, how silly does that sound now?

15409774_10157920161805327_247561290_o

I only ever meant to take the laxatives (half a box of them) once, just to ‘erase’ Christmas day. Each day I would swear on ‘no more Yule log’ and it was salad from now on. I never binged, but every time I ate something ‘non-diet’, I took more pills. Or vomited. Or did an extra 4 hours exercise (it was the holidays, I had time). Or all of the above. Nobody knew. I was way too ashamed to tell anyone.

It was only when this cycle started to impact my daily life about 6 weeks later – skipping classes to make myself sick, blocking up the loo in my flat, not being able to think about anything else but my fat thighs and pathetic self-will, that I switched to a new tactic – restriction. 

It started innocently enough – cutting out fat, then bread, meat……until I was probably living off about 500 calories a day of primarily vegetables, and my condition was noticed, I was removed from dance school, and put under the care of an outpatient clinic. 

And herein began six years of treatment that I resisted as much as I could. Meal plans, counselling, CBT, supervised meals, meals in tubs to take home to eat, and three times I was hospitalised at a dangerously low weight. Nothing worked. 

Why was I so resistant? To say I was miserable doesn’t cut close. If there is a Hell, I have been there. I was also diagnosed with extreme clinical depression unresponsive to medication, borderline OCD, showing bipolar ‘tendencies’ and one therapist suspected I had Borderline Personality Disorder, which some say is what Amy Winehouse had before she died. I self-harmed, and I attempted suicide twice. 

But my eating disorder kept me safe. By this time it was a way of life, it was my identity, and in some distorted way it made me feel special. This is what it comes down to in the end – I never felt special. I felt like a worthless waste of space, yet ironically struggling with this eating disorder only reinforced how much of a waste I was. After all I was putting my family through so much stress and worry. None of it makes sense, but I guess that’s why mental illnesses are so hard to recover from.

So how is it that I can be here today, happier than I have even been in my life, married with two children, and helping other women learn how to treat their body well?

I often get asked what made me finally recover. Honestly? I don’t know. I remember being in a pub garden one summer with a couple of friends, fresh out of another hospital admission and going downhill already. One companion announced she was getting married, the other that she was pregnant. Suddenly for the first time since I developed anorexia, I felt lonely. The eating disorder had been my only friend who stuck by me, yet this ‘friend’ was turning against me. Everyone was growing up, creating careers, moving on with their life. I was stuck in this child like state, being left behind. If there’s one dream I had all my life even throughout the illness, it was to have children. A little girl I could bring up as my little princess. That was not going to happen if I carried on. I was at that time infertile and no man in their right mind would be attracted to an emaciated mess. 

It was like I woke up, or a lightbulb went off, or something switched in my brain. I didn’t want this illness in my life anymore. This time I really didn’t want it.

That’s not to say it came easy. Anorexia is like having a little devil on your shoulder, dictating what you should and should not eat, telling you how pathetic you are if you give in and eat. I’m not going to lie – those voices are still there every day, even 10 years on. But there’s a difference. Now, I shout back louder. 

It’s a fight, every day. I know people who seem to have completely recovered and they think the same way about food and their body as any ‘normal’ person. I may get to that place, I may not. But I’m happy, I’m healthy, and I will keep on winning this fight. 

I’m not a counsellor or psychologist, but I have been there, I do understand. So if anyone wanted to reach out and chat, ask advice, or hopefully to tell me they’ve been inspired to keep fighting, I’m only an email or social media contact away. If I can help just one person, that can of worms was definitely worth opening. ”

 

Pollyanna Hale helps Mums lose weight and get their body confidence back via online coaching with www.thefitmumformula.com/. A qualified Personal Trainer, Polly knows from personal experience and though helping hundreds of women that there is more to having a healthy body than just following some cookie cutter meal plan. Long term success comes from learning to love yourself and your body and treating it with the respect it deserves. It doesn’t matter if you’re overweight or underweight, or somewhere in between. The weight is just a symptom. Everyone deserves to feel special. 

 

Snack Attack: Wellaby’s review

The snack market is huge and every expanding, but often snacks can be laded in calories, saturated fat and less than nutritious. I am always on the look out for new, nutritious snacks that I can eat and recommend to others. 

Wellaby’s Simple Bakes are gluten, dairy and nut free. This of course does not make them any healthier in my eyes, but it does mean they could be a worthwhile addition to the free-from snack market. Many snacks in the free-from aisle have one food group removed and replaced with fat/sugar in order to help boost the taste. 

These baked snacks are less than 100kcals per serving – however this is for a 24g serving and they come in a 120g packet. So I doubt that many people would stick to this serving size.  As well as being low in calories per portion they are low in saturated fat and sugars.

Screen Shot 2017-02-26 at 22.03.30

They are marketed as being a wholegrain snack. Looking at the nutrition label they contain 4.2 g fibre per 100g, equivalent to a medium apple, this comes from the wholegrain rice flour and oats. A high fibre food is 6g/100g so I would put these as a mid-range fibre food.

I found these snacks really tasty. I sometimes find the flavouring in snack foods can be overpowering or too artificial tasting, but these were a good balance. I also enjoyed the crunch. 

WELLABYS_3PACK

It would be great to see these in smaller, portion controlled packets, I particularly like the fibre content and the fact they are gluten, dairy and nut free.

Disclaimer: All views are my own, I was sent these 3 packets to review.

10 portions of fruit and veggies a day?

So today we woke up to the news that 10 portions of fruit and vegetables is the new 5 a day. 

10 a day

95 studies on fruit and vegetables have been analysed by researcher at the Imperial College of London. They found that the most benefit came from eating 800g per day, as 80g is a portion this equates to a whopping 10 portions a day. 

Consuming 10 portions a day was associated with a 24% reduced risk of heart disease, a 33% lower risk of stroke, a 28% reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, a 13% reduced risk of cancer, and a 31% reduction in the risk of premature death. This may be due to the levels of antioxidants they contain as well as their fibre content. Eating 10 portions will also potentially mean that less processed foods are being consumed, so implies an overal healthier diet and lifestyle. 

This isn’t to say that eating less is not worth doing however as there are still significant health benefits from eating any amounts of fruit and veggies. For example helping to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Specifically apples and pears, citrus fruits, salads and green leafy vegetables (kale, spinach, lettuce), cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower) may help protect against heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and early death. Eating green vegetables, yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables could help protect against cancer risks.

Is it Achievable?

The problem is that in the UK many people are not even meeting the 5 a day target. Suddenly asking them to eat 10 portions a day is unrealistic and laughable for some. I myself currently eat 7-8 portions a day, having increased this from 5 a day. I could increase this further but I have a gut issue and personally I think I am on my limit. 

For some people this level of fibre intake is not going to be a good plan. Those with digestive disorders such as diverticulitis, some people with IBS or Crohns disease or an inflamed gut.

So it is all about small increases and working towards eating more.

Sugar?

I’ve already heard the words “too much sugar” mentioned. Do not panic people. Put your sugar finger pointing fingers down. The sugar in fruit is not a “free sugar”. It is contained within a fibrous matrix and so it is not released into your blood stream as quickly as eating pure sugar or honey. 

Having said this, I would still recommend you focus on eating more vegetables and not too much fruit. Remember dried fruit is a more concentrated form of sugar so watch your portion sizes of this. Juices and smoothies should be limited to maximum one  a day. So really we are looking at upping the whole fruit and veg.

10 portions a day:

So what could it look like?

Breakfast: Cereal with 80g berries and 1 tbsp raisins. 2 portions

Snack: Banana and nuts. 1 portion

Lunch: 1/2 avocado on toast topped with tuna served with a side salad. 2 portions

Snack: 1 chopped carrot with 1 tbsp hummus. 1 portion

Dinner: Chicken casserole and rice with 2 portions of vegetables. 1 glass of fruit juice. 3 portions

Snack: Chopped apple and yoghurt 1 portion

My take home message:

JUST EAT MORE FRUIT AND VEGETABLES.

Focus on increasing it gradually.  As with anything this is a habit that needs to be formed and it doesn’t happen overnight. Set yourself small goals like adding fruit to your breakfast or having a vegetable based snack each day and build on it.

I’d love to hear how many portions of fruit and veg you currently eat and how you plan to increase it.

 

Pear Rock Cakes, no added sugar.

It’s been a week of pretty awful sleep. That saying about “They saved the best till last” is not true when it comes to sleeping babies. The third baby is the worse sleeper! However she also gives the best cuddles and is super cute with it, so I can’t be cross with her.

When I don’t sleep well I tend to :

  1. Walk around in a bit of a brain fog, yet still be functional for work – how does that happen?
  2. Want to poke out the eyes of anyone who has a baby that sleeps through the night.
  3. Loose some of my words. My 6 year old is good at finding them for me. “I’m just making…..ummm, ummm” “Breakfast Mummy?” “Yes, that’s the one”. 
  4. Get creating in the kitchen. I’ve no idea how but cooking and baking helps restore my sanity.

So on a cold, fuzzy headed Sunday afternoon I was flicking through my recipe notebook and stumbled upon rockcakes. Rockcakes seem to be one of those recipes that people make in school or when they are learning to bake. I think they need a come-back. Super easy to make, which means the children can help, there is little that you can go wrong with and you are left with a mountain of tasty snacks for your week.

I’ve adapted the usual rock cake recipe by adding in fruit and upon tasty the mix I decided it was sweet enough for our palates. Try a bit of it before you add in the eggs and see what you think as you can always add in a little sugar to taste. Doing it this way will hopefully mean you don’t go OTT on the sugar content.

My kids were happy bunnies and rewarded me by playing nicely with minimal arguments all afternoon. I love the subtle pear hint in these. Perfect for tbe after school munchies, which happens to co-incide with my cuppa and snack time 🙂 

Dietitian UK: Pear Rockcakes

Pear Rock Cakes
Yields 20
Write a review
Print
Prep Time
10 min
Prep Time
10 min
116 calories
17 g
29 g
5 g
2 g
3 g
45 g
9 g
5 g
0 g
1 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
45g
Yields
20
Amount Per Serving
Calories 116
Calories from Fat 41
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 5g
7%
Saturated Fat 3g
14%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 1g
Cholesterol 29mg
10%
Sodium 9mg
0%
Total Carbohydrates 17g
6%
Dietary Fiber 1g
4%
Sugars 5g
Protein 2g
Vitamin A
3%
Vitamin C
2%
Calcium
3%
Iron
2%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 100g butter at room temperature
  2. 250g flour (I used Doves Farm Plain Gluten Free Blend)
  3. 2 tsp baking powder
  4. 1 tsp mixed spice
  5. 1 soft large pear, peeled and chopped
  6. 1 soft ripe banana, mashed
  7. 100g raisins
  8. 2 eggs
Instructions
  1. Rub the butter into the flour.
  2. Now add the baking power and spice.
  3. Add in the wet fruit. the pear should break down easily if you are using a stand mixer or food processor.
  4. Now mix the raisins in gently.
  5. Add in the eggs, one at a time.
  6. Taste and add sugar if needed, I found it wasn't necessary.
  7. Preheat the oven to Gas Mark 5, line and grease a baking tray.
  8. You should end up with a soft dough.
  9. Take dessert spoons of the mixture and gently shape into rounds.
  10. Place onto a greased, lined baking tray.
  11. Bake for 15-20 minutes until they are lightly browned on the top.
beta
calories
116
fat
5g
protein
2g
carbs
17g
more
Dietitian UK http://www.dietitianuk.co.uk/

Freelance Dietitian specialising in helping those with Eating Disorders and a Media Spokesperson for the profession.